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J. B. BURY, M.A., F.B.A. 
S. A. COOK, Litt.D. 
F*. E. ADCOCK, M.A. 








By Peter GrLEs, Litt.D. 
Reader in Comparative Philology, Master of Emmanuel College, Cambridge 


Introduction ........... i 

L General physical conditions of Asia Minor 2 

Climate. .......... 3 

Rivers ........... 4 

Ethnology 5 

II. The Hittites and other peoples of Asia Minor .... 6 

Peoples of the Sea ......... 8 

Lycians, Carians 9 

Leleges, Lydians xo 

Etruria ir 

III. Indo-Europeans; contact with Europe 12 

Phrygians, Paphlagonians . . . . . . . 14 

Medes 15 

Linguistic evidence . . . . • . . . . 16 

Later invaders 17 

The Celts of Asia Minor . ........ 18 



By P. Giles 

Prehistoric Europe 

European types . 

Italy, Sicily, Albania 

The Balkan peninsula 


Home of the Indo-Europeans 

Greece, Macedonia, Thrace. 

Scythians, Sarmatians, Celts . 

Red and Black Celts, Galatians 

Italic peoples 

German peoples . 






IN the period upon which we are about to enter, the peoples of 
south-west Asia, Egypt and south-east Europe were brought 
into very close ccTntact one with another. Peaceful trading-journeys, 
ambitious wars by land and by sea, and some sweeping ethnical 
movements, which had the profoundest consequences for history, 
made the area virtually one inter-connected whole. The history 
of no portion of this whole can properly be viewed quite apart 
from the rest, although naturally it will be necessary to treat 
each part by itself, and with reference to its own peculiar develop- 
ment and problems. The available sources, moreover, although 
by no means inconsiderable in quantity, vary greatly as regards 
quality; both the archaeological and the written materials are 
often difficult to interpret, or are susceptible of different inter- 
pretations, and may be treated from different points of view. 
Further, the far-reaching political and other changes which 
mark this period can be best understood only by taking a wider 
survey of the interrelations between Asia, Africa and Europe 
which illumine the particular vicissitudes now to be described. 
To a certain extent this has already been done in volume i (see 
especially chapters i, n and v). Accordingly, the chapters in this 
volume are drawn up so as to assist the reader to grasp the period 
and the area as a whole, and also in their various parts and aspects, 
though at the unavoidable cost of some repetition and overlapping. 
Once more (see vol. i, p. 181) the history of Egypt holds the 
premier position, owing mainly to its relations with south-west 
Asia and the peoples of the East Mediterranean. But Asia 
Minor now assumes a unique significance, partly because, as the 
bridge between Europe and Asia, it was the centre of the most 
intricate developments of the period, and partly also because 
the rich store of cuneiform tablets discovered at Boghaz Keui, 
and the problems of the 'Hittitcs/ and all their ramifications 
are proving to be of more fundamental importance than could 
ever have been suspected, Accordingly, chapters on the peoples 
of Asia Minor and of Europe form an appropriate introduction, 
and deal with linguistic problems, and with certain important 

C.A.H. II I 



It is still too early to claim that the history of the peoples of 
Asia Minor may be written with certainty- Rarely crossed by 
European travellers since the Turkish conquest till the nineteenth 
century, and still more rarely by scholars desirous to^ learn its 
distant past and competent to judge of what they saw, it may be 
said that Asia Minor was first revealed to the woi Id by the hYench 
traveller Texier, and by the British geologist \V\ j. 1 lamilton, 
who started on his memorable expedition in 1835. Since then, 
French, German and English scholars have been diligent in the 
study of its geographical features and of its antiquities. But the 
excavation of the site of Troy was the first attempt on a large 
scale to widen our knowledge with the help of the spade. To 
America by the excavation in recent times of Sardes and to ( Ger- 
many by the unearthing of the records of the ancient Anatolian 
Empire at Boghaz Keui has fallen the glory of revealing its 
history in days when Greek commerce and Greek language had 
not yet conquered the vast area that lies between the Black Sea 
and the Gulf of Alexandretta, between the Aegean and the 
mountains of Anti-Taurus and Armenia. 

To the ancients indeed the bounds of the peninsula towards 
the east were vague and uncertain. Strabo proposed to draw a 
line from the eastern end of the plain of Tarsus to Sinope or 
Amisus (Samsun) on the Black Sea 1 . Such a line would form no 
proper geographical boundary, though at an earlier period such 
a division might have commended itself to the Greeks, who felt 
that with the winding Halys ended even vague knowledge of ! he 
interior of the peninsula. 

Geographically Asia Minor is a curious land, If one may use 
a homely image, the peninsula may be compared to a gigantic 
inverted pie-dish, the bottom of which is surrounded by a raised 
foot. The narrow lip of the inverted vessel is raised but little above 
sea-level. Behind rises the body of the dish to an average height 
of 3000 to 3500 feet, and surrounding this is the foot; formed on 
the south bythe great Taurus range, and continued to the north-east 
by Anti-Taurus, This mighty rampart the invader has generally 
found invincible* The Cilician Gates above Tarsus are an entrance 
and an exit made by human hands, and, being unapproachable by a 
host in days before artillery, were not difficult to hold by a small 

1 Strabo, xiv, p. 664. 


but determined force. A slight change of ground for the defenders 
still leaves the pass impregnable. The last invaders of the penin- 
sula who have made good its possession — the Turks — came in to 
it by the mountains of Armenia far to the east. The range of 
Amanus which forms the dividing line between the plain of 
Tarsus in Cilicia and Syria is less formidable. Access also from 
Mesopotamia is not difficult, and the powerful states of that 
region at an early period availed themselves of this route to the 
metal- working m:eas near the Black Sea. 

On the north side, though the interior is cut off from the sea 
by similar though lower ranges of mountains, the foot is neither 
so continuous nor so difficult of access. On the north-west and the 
west the peninsula is more vulnerable. From the plain of Troy or 
along the valleys of the Hermus and the Maeander lay the routes 
for trade and for war. The Crusaders with Godfrey gathered at 
Dorylaeum (Eski-Shehr); Cyrus the younger started from Sardes 
on the Hermus for his expedition to distant Babylon against 
his brother Artaxerxes; and at Celaenae ? the later Apamea, 
Alexander's forces converged when they were to set out upon the 
conquest of the Persian Empire to its farthest eastern bounds. 

The climatic conditions of the great central plateau of Asia 
Minor are very different from those of its coast lands. Its rivers 
descending from the lofty heights of the table-land bring down 
with them great quantities of solid matter, which in the course of 
ages have extended the coast line far out to sea, and produced a 
low-lying, marshy, and malarious area at the foot of the steep 
slopes which ascend to the central plain. The island of Lade, off 
which the Greeks and Persians fought a battle in 494 B.C., 
is now a hill some miles inland. The central plain is to a large 
extent treeless and better suited for pasture than for agriculture. 
The climate of this area is continental; the summers are hot and 
the winters severe. The slopes which border the southern side of 
the Black Sea, on the other hand, form one of the most beautiful 
countries in the world, rich in forest, in fruit trees and in flowering 
plants. East of Trebizond the rhododendron and the azalea, here 
upon their native soil, blossom in the greatest profusion. The 
alluvial soil of the western shores is deep and rich, a land fit for 
the growth and maintenance of great cities which could draw to 
themselves the wealth in corn and wool of the hinterland, and 
well provided with harbours from which daring mariners might 
carry to north and south and west the rich products which had 
accumulated in their towns. On the south the plain of Cilicia was 
probably always unwholesome from its malarious marshes, but it 


was important as connecting Asia Minor with its southern neigh- 
bours, Syria and Palestine. 

By far the most important of the rivers of Asia Minor \ws the 
Halys (now the Kizil Irmak or Red River), which, rising in the 
mountains of the lesser Armenia, runs for some distance in a 
westerly direction, almost parallel to the Euphrates, and having 
made a tremendous curve to the south-west turns gradually 
northwards and finds its way to the Black Sea some thirty or 
forty miles to the north-west of Samsun. Of les't importance are 
other northward-flowing rivers, the Iris, east of the I lalys, formed 
by the junction of the ancient Scylax and Lycus and, much 
farther to the west, the Sangarius which, emptying itself into the 
Black Sea some sixty or seventy miles east of the Bosporus, seems 
to make the eastern boundary of Homer's knowledge. hYoin its 
banks Priam of Troy brought Hecuba to be his bride und there 
he fought against the mysterious women warriors, the Amazons, 
whose legend in the lands east of the Halys is not even now extinct. 

Apart from the Halys the most important of Anatolian rivers 
are those which flow westwards. The Simois and Seamander of 
Troy would have had no importance in the world had it not been 
that the Homeric epic of the tale of Troy centred on their banks. 
The Ca'icus flowing south-westwards not far from the later J*er- 
gamum; the Hermus traversing a comparatively narrow valley 
on the southern slope of which stood Sanies the capital of the 
Lydian Empire and Magnesia near Mount Sipylus, and entering 
a bay on the southern side of which stood Smyrna; the Cayster 
through marshes famed for water-fowl reaching the sea at Kphesus; 
the Maeander pouring through a broad valley studded on either 
side by famous cities — all these play an important part in Cireek 
history and legend. In the mountainous country of Lyeia the 
rivers are naturally shorter and less important. Through pic- 
turesque gorges the Sarus (Seihun) and the Pyramus (J Hum) 
break out into the Cilician plain which owes its extent to* them, 
though they are too swift to be of use for the exploitation of the 
mountainous country inland* 

In this mountainous country volcanic rocks, through which 
run veins of valuable metals, rise here and there amid the prevalent 
limestone of the peninsula. Probably the earliest inroads into Asia 
which history as yet records are those of enterprising traders 
from Mesopotamia, who have left behind them evidence in 
pottery and inscriptions of their presence more than twenty 
centuries before Christ, At Kiiltepe, south of the great bend of 
the Halys near Caesarea Mazaca, there seems to have been an 


emporium for the iron forged by the Chalybes far to the north on 
the slopes nearer to the Black Sea between Samsun and Trebizond, 
a Mysterious people living in dens and caves of the earth, 
giving rise to legends of mysterious dwarfs, and supplying the 
Greeks with a name for steel, which seems to have become known 
to them first from this area. This country is rich in minerals. 
Strabo speculates on the relation between the name of the 
Chalybes and Alybc, whence according to Homer was the origin 
of silver 1 . It is^possible in the case of foreign names that the 
phonetic laws of Greek did not hold and that some connection 
did exist. In modern times a relation has been seen between Alybe 
and the word silver^ and the existence according to Pliny of a 
river Sidenum and a tribe of Sideni, to which Strabo adds a town 
Side, suggests that here also may be the origin of Sideros> the 
Greek word for iron, the etymology of which is unknown 2 . 

It is probable that, from the earliest times, on the central plains 
at least and extending down into the mountainous country to the 
south-west was a population with a striking physiognomy which 
is still common amongst the Armenian population of to-day. Of 
this population the special characteristics are a prominent nose 
in line with a forehead receding and rising to an unusual height. 
How far this strange configuration of head is natural and how 
far increased by the practice of mothers to tie very tightly round 
the heads of their babies a towel, which when soaked in water 
exercises great pressure upon the tender bones of infancy, is still 
a matter of dispute amongst experts. Probably art has only in- 
creased the sloping forehead given by nature, and the Hittite 
warriors of the fourteenth century B.C. and the Armenians of to-day 
have the same characteristic profile. It may be fairly assumed that 
the rich coast-lands drew from very early times invaders to 
establish themselves, and throughout history we find on the sea- 
level a population differing from that which holds the great 
central plain, much as along the eastern shore of the Adriatic 
the coast population has generally differed from that of the inland 
country high above it. The pastoral people of the plateau, how- 
ever, must in early times have been to some extent migratory 
because of the difficulty of keeping their flocks alive during the 
stress of winter. Just as to this day the sheep of the highlands of 
Scotland migrate to the lowlands in winter where food is more 
plentiful and accessible, so in Asia Minor the primitive Anatolian 

1 Strabo, xn, p. 549; J7zW, 11, 857. 

2 Pliny, N.H. vi, 11 » Strabo ? xn, p. 548. Sayce (C,R. 1922, p. 19) 
suggests that %a\fc6v may be derived from Khalki whence copper came. 


shepherd must have moved towards the coast in t he winter season. 
Geographical conditions tend to produce the same results in 
distant ages, and the migratory Ytiruks of modern times, thcvjgh 
nominally of an alien stock, really only reproduce the pnietice of 
the primitive age. In both periods the development of a strong 
people along the coast was bound to hamper and ultimately to 
limit in a great degree the ancient summer and winter migrations 
of the flocks, 


This country of Asia Minor, ever since history began, h;is been 
a country of passage between East and West, and its whole history 
is a record of migrations to and fro across it from Central Asia to 
Europe or from^Europe to Central Asia, Afghanistan and India. 
Out of the aboriginal people seems to have, grown the mighty 
empire of the Hittites, who, though known to us from the O.T. 
as settled in Palestine, were only, as we now learn, immigrants 
into that area and had their home much farther to the north. In 
the area where we find them prominent in the earliest times there 
was a people known to the Greeks of the Roman period as the 
White Syrians (AevKoavpoi). The epithet White was apparently 
given to them to distinguish them from the Phoenicians or Rod 
Syrians, and it is noticeable that in Kjjyptian art: the i lit tiles are 
represented as of a paler colour than the red Phoenicians, 

The ethnological and philological relations of this stock are still 
uncertain. The kings of Babylon, according to legend, were in touch 
with them nearly 3000 years before Christ. From Tell cl-Anmnm 
and from Assyria come two fragments which relate the story of 
the campaign made by Sargon 1 into Cappadoeia in the third year 
of his reign, in order to relieve the Babylonian colony of traders 
at Ganesh (Kanes) from the attacks of the king of Burushkhanda. 
In Ganesh we recognize the modern Ktiltepe, a colony which had 
been founded by the city of Kish in southern Babylonia, Harmon's 
date is fixed about 2850 B.a Some 600 years later are dated the 
cuneiform inscriptions found at Kultepe, which wen* the ream Is 
of a business house in the colony. From about 1K00 u,l\ the 
Hittites come more fully into the light of history. 

Since the beginning of the archaeological exploration of Asia 
Minor^ stone carvings of a very characteristic kind have been 
found in various parts. Some are obviously under the influence 
of Assyrian art but others bear a distinctive character of their 
own. One of the largest known and one of the most striking 


though also probably one of the latest in date, is the famous rock 
carving of Ivriz, in a gorge ascending from the Lycaonian plain 
not^many miles from EreglL There is represented a scene of a 
king clothed in an embroidered robe and a mantle, in an attitude 
of supplication before a larger and sturdier figure, which obviously 
represents a deity of vegetation, for in his right hand he holds a 
vine branch with three great clusters of grapes, and in his left he 
grasps a handful of ears of corn. On the rock between the face of 
the deity and th« upheld corn ears is an inscription in the peculiar 
hieroglyphics which we now know to be of the Hittites. The 
dress of the god is simpler than that of his worshipper, being a 
tunic with a downward curving hem making a point in front. 
Round his waist he wears an ornamental girdle. Both figures 
have thick curly hair reaching to the nape of the neck and curly 
beards. Experts assign these figures to the eighth century B.C. 
To a much earlier period belong some figures of the Sun-god 
Teshub, with a curly beard well known in Assyrian sculpture, but 
with his hair in a long queue under a bell-shaped cap. He too 
wears a tunic with a belt in which is thrust a sword. Round the 
tunic runs an ornamental hem and on his feet he has shoes with 
upturned toes. In his right hand the god wields a battle-axe and 
in his left he holds the symbol of the lightning, which might be 
compared to a scourge with three thongs. 

For the history of the Hittites before the fifteenth century B.C. 
our information is very scanty, but it would seem that gradually 
they pushed down into the valley of the Euphrates on the one 
side, and into western Syria and Palestine on the other. The later 
Assyrians have indeed been well described as Hittites who had 
adopted the civilization of Babylon. Their pressure along the 
Mediterranean coast brought them in time into contact with 
Egypt, whose conquests were spreading upwards from the south. 
From the annals of Thutmose III we learn that he more than 
once received presents from the princes of Kheta and we can still 
see the representations of envoys bringing gifts and of subject 
princes of Koftiu and Kheta* The details belong to the history of 
Egypt, see pp. 77, 82. In later centuries a Hittite kingdom 
existed with its centre at Carehemish, but its importance was 
secondary and in 717 b,c. it succumbed finally to the Assyrians. 

Ramses II is said to have subdued the c Peoples of the Sea', a 
vague title which it is hardly possible as yet to define with 
accuracy. It is clear that these people were not merely raiding 
brigands, but migrated from land to land with all their belongings, 
their wives and children, much as the Gauls of a later date attacked 


and occupied, for a time at least, various parts of Europe and 
even of Asia (see chap. xn). Their name survives in (lie mysterious 
peoples whom the Greeks called Pelasgoi (UeXatryot). The tvm\ is 
a quite regular derivative from the stem of 7rcAayo<? the sea, and 
the ending -/cos, frequently employed in tribal names. To the 
Greeks themselves these peoples were, in later times, nothing* hut 
a name. They identified them on the coast of Thrace, in Lemnos, 
in Attica at the very foot of the Acropolis, in north-west Greece, 
in Crete, in Italy and other places. But what tongue they spoke, 
whence they came, or whither they went, they were entirely 
unable to tell. In the time of Herodotus the Pelagians were still 
to be found in Thrace in the neighbourhood of the 1 Hellespont, 
Their language Herodotus regarded as non-Greek. In the Athen- 
ians and Ionians he saw a Pelasgian people who had become 
Hellenized 1 . In truth it was not unnatural that the ancients should 
not be able to define the race or the language^of the Pelaspans, 
for like other rovers of ancient and modern times they were 
probably neither of one race nor of one speech. Thus they art* no 
doubt accurately described in the Great Karnak inscription hy 
the Egyptians as 'northerners coming from all lands-/ 

In the letters from Tell cl-Amarna before the middle of the 
fourteenth century B.C. mention is made of certain tribes, Danuna, 
Shardina, Shakalsha, which with greater or less certainty have 
been identified with Greek Danai, men of Sanies cm- of Sardinia, 
and men of Sagalassus, north of Pisidia. In the reign of Ramses II 
(about 1290 B.C.) they have become very formidable and in com- 
bination with the Hittitcs and other foes are a serious danger to 
Egypt, The identifications, in the imperfect Egyptian method of 
writing the names, are again necessarily uncertain* But with fair 
probability there may be distinguished I.yemns, Oilieians, Dar- 
dani presumably from Troy-land, and more doubtfully men ihm\ 
Mysia and Pedasus. Ramses II was successful in staving nfVthe 
evil day when Egyptian decadence must submit to foreign con- 
quest. Before many years had passed, his son king Mernepiah found 
he had a still more formidable coalition of foreign foes to mvvt. 
For some time Libyan tribes had been occupying the western 'Delta. 
Now they are backed by a strong alliance in which the hyeians 
appear as before. The Shardina, to be identified with Sardinians, 
who had been mercenaries of Ramses II, are now opposed to the 
Egyptians, and with them come Tursha, who are held to he 
Etruscans, and Akaiwasha, Greek Achaeans. If the Shakalsha 
of the fourteenth century were men of Sagalassus, unless there 

1 Herod, 1, 56. 9 Breasted, Jncient Records of ' Egypt ^ nr, p* 24 1. 


had meantime been some western migration, it is difficult to 
identify them with the Sikels of Sicily. See further, chap. xn. 

Tp the incursions of these mysterious sea-folk we probably 
owe it that some of the names of peoples which are known to us 
in early times have in later clays ceased to be familiar. In the 
mountainous country of soiith-west Asia Minor it would not be 
surprising if there were relics of several races which had suc- 
ceeded one another, each newcomer in turn subdued by a later. 
The name however of Lycia is old, and Egyptian scholars argue 
that in the Ruku of Egyptian monuments are to be found the 
ancient Lycians who, along with other sea-folk, had fought against 
the Egyptians and been taken captive. But even so, Herodotus 
recognized a still more ancient name of the country in Milyas, 
and earlier inhabitants in the Solymi and Termilai or Tremilai 1 . 
These tribes were regarded as being extremely ancient, for to 
Bellerophon was ascribed the change of the name of Tremilai 
into Lycians. Yet even in the time of Herodotus the name Termilai 
was still familiar. In the later population scholars are inclined to 
see a stock that had migrated from the island of Crete, which the 
poet of the Odyssey, or his interpolator, recognized as a land of 
ninety cities in which were many peoples and among them 
the Pelasgoi 2 . Wild as this corner of Asia is, it has preserved more 
records, in the form of non-Greek inscriptions, than any other 
district as yet of the western littoral of Asia Minor. But though 
the inscriptions are numerous, it cannot be said that they throw 
light upon the origins of the language, which, after discussions 
protracted over many years, cannot certainly be referred to any 
of the known families of language. Tn many respects the Lycian 
customs resembled those of the Carians, but in one they were con- 
spicuously different. The Lycians counted kin through the mother, 
legitimatized the offspring of the union between a woman who was 
a citizen and a slave, and deprived of rights the children of a 
male citizen and a slave woman 9 . 

Their next neighbours, the Carians, were somewhat more for- 
tunate, for in them were recognized by the ancients — and their 
statement is not disputed by the moderns — a population extending 
over many of the islands which in later times were Greek, and 
believed at one time to have occupied the mainland of Greece 
itself. In the days of Thucydides graves opened by the Athenians 
for the purification of the island of Delos showed, according to 
the historian, skeletons of which more than half were recognized 
by the armour buried with them and by the form of burial as 

1 1, t j$i d* p. 2H2 below. 2 Odyssey, xix, 175 sqq. z Herod. i ? 1 73. 


being Carians 1 . Whatever Its origin, this also was a fighting stock 
which supplied mercenaries to Asiatic and Egyptian potentates, 
and most of the little that we know of the Carian lan^uag^ is 
drawn from the names scratched in an idle hour upon monuments 
on the banks of the upper Nile. In Carta also^ there seems to have 
been a mixture of populations. The people of Caunus, in the eyes 
of Herodotus, were natives of the soil, while, according to him, 
the Carians came to the mainland from the islands. There, in the 
time of Minos, they were called Lcleges and liwd free of tribute, 
having no duty but to man his ships when Minos called upon 
them so to do 2 . The people of Caunus also claimed, like I he 
Lycians, that they came from Crete. But this is hardly likely if, 
as says the historian, who himself came from the Carian coast, 
their customs differed from those of every other people*. 

The relation between Lelcges and Carians is no less difficult 
(see below, p. 27), According to Herodotus, .Lelcges was but an 
old name of the Carians by which they were called when they 
occupied the islands 3 . On the other hand, it is not unlikely that 
Philip of Theangela, himself a native of Curia, was ri^hl in 
declaring that the Leleges stood in the same relation to the 
Carians as the Helots to their Lacedaemonian masters and the 
Penestae to their Thessalian overlords 4 . In spite of the lateness of 
the authority, it seems not at all unlikely that in Curia as in ( Jrceee 
there was an early population reduced to serfdom by later in- 
comers. With the Carians Herodotus classes the Lydians and 
Mysians, assuring us that they had a common worship at the 
temple of the Carian Zeus at Mylasa in Caria; Lydus and IVlysus, 
the eponymous heroes of the Lydians and the Mysians, being 
brothers of Car, the founder of the Carians. Kven'Straho, who 
agrees with Herodotus that the Carians, when they were subjects 
of Minos in the islands, were called Leleges, admits, that when 
they occupied the mainland of Asia they took from Leleges nnd 
Pelasgoi mainly the lands which they held henceforth*. 

More important for the part they played in the seventh ami 
sixth centuries b.c. were the Lydians. In Homer, however, the 
name of the Lydians is entirely unknown, their place bring taken 
by the Maeonians 6 . Homer links Maeonia with Phrytjia and in a 
simile of the Iliad speaks of the Maeonian or Carian woman 
staining ivory with red to be the check-piece of a bridle 7 * In 
the tenth book of the Iliad Lycians, Mysians, Phrygians and 

1 Thua 1, 8, i. 2 Herod, 1, 171. 

8 Herod 1, 171. * Athcnaeus, vi, 271b (PJiAL iv, 475). 

5 Strabo, xtv, 27, p. 661. « 7//W, in, 401. 7 ///W, iv, 14?..' 


Maeonians are encamped together 1 . Unfortunately the results of 
the American excavations at Sardes., so far as yet published, have 
not thrown so much light as was expected upon the history of the 
Lydians. But here, as elsewhere on this coast, it may be con- 
jectured that the Maeonians were an earlier people subdued and 
ultimately assimilated by the Lydians. Some Maeonians, however, 
were still important enough to be distinguished in Xerxes' army 
from the Lydians. Their military equipment was like that of the 
Cilicians. Pliny isays that there were still Maeonians at the foot 
of Tmolus on the river Cogamus at no great distance from Sardes, 
which was their legal centre 2 . Whence the Lydians may have 
come cannot as yet be determined. The country was one to tempt 
the invader, for, besides the richness of the long river valley, 
gold dust was obtained from Mount Tmolus. Herodotus could 
discover little in the customs of the people to distinguish them 
from the Greeks, except for one curious practice of the common 
people, among whom daughters earned their own dowries as 
courtesans. He regards the people as extremely enterprising, 
the first to coin gold and silver and the first to engage in mer- 
chandised They were of an inventive turn of mind, for to them 
Herodotus assigns the discovery of all games except draughts. 

Most important of all his statements regarding them is his 
circumstantial account of their colonization of Etruria. No state- 
ment in Herodotus has been perhaps more hotly disputed. But 
after long discussion no other view, to say the least, appears more 
plausible. From the inscriptions already published from Sardes 
it is impossible to say that Lydian and Etruscan are very closely 
related, though they have undoubtedly a superficial resemblance. 
Here we must wait for further information. But there is one point 
of resemblance which has been but little noticed. The Lydians, 
it is well known, had a great passion for jewellery. From the 
plates in the British Museum Catalogue of Ancient Jewellery it 
is very clear that there was an intimate relation between the 
jewellery of Ionia, influenced by Lyclia, and the jewellery of 
Etruria. Both are characterized by figures of lions and a lion- 
taming goddess and the frequent use of the Sphinx and of female 
heads probably representing a goddess 4 . A further item is added 
to the complexity of the problem by the bas-relief found in Lemnos 
and first published in 1886, which shows a striking bust of a 

1 Uutd^ x y 430 Sff. 

2 Herod, vni 74, JJ$ Pliny, NJ-L v, 1 1 1, where they are called Maeonii, 
not Maeones. s Herod i, 93^. 

4 See F. H. Marshall, Introduction to B*M. Catalogue^ p. xxv sq* 


warrior holding a spear with a leaf-shaped head. Two inscriptions 
in an unknown tongue are written alongside in an archaic form 
of the Greek alphabet. Here, again, the language, though unknewn, 
has a still more striking resemblance to Etruscan, Till more light 
can be obtained upon this perplexing problem we may adhere to 
the belief that the Lydians, the Etruscans, and the authors of 
these remarkable Lemnian inscriptions were part of the * Peoples 
of the Sea' whom the Greeks vaguely called Pelasgoi, and we may 
believe that in Lydia and in Etruria they established themselves 
on great mainland territories, possibly from an island home, The 
detailed investigation of these facts is a matter rather for Com- 
parative Philology than for History, and till greater agreement 
among authorities is attained it would be idle to draw serious 
historical conclusions from them. See also p. 282. 

The most northerly position amongst the peoples of the western 
littoral of Asia Minor was occupied by the My.sians, who, accord- 
ing to the ancient writers, were of Thracian descent, and were 
connected with the inhabitants of the district on the south of the 
Danube known in later times as Moesia 1 , Here, however, there 
can be little doubt that there was an earlier substratum of popula- 
tion and possibly more than one. To this earlier population 
must be ascribed the worship which was common to IVtysians, 
Lydians and Carians 2 . In Mysia was the Troad, the most famous 
area in the earliest literature of Europe, with its renowned city of 
Ilios and its two famous sieges, the second of which attained to 
greater lustre possibly merely from the fact that it was the theme 
of one of the greatest of poets. 

With the access to the Dardanelles we pass into a new area the 
connections of which are more with Europe than with Asia, for 
across this narrow strait of the Hellespont, even more than by the 
waters .of the Golden Horn, the teeming populations of Thrace 
passed into Asia from Europe. Not once nor twice but many 
times a succession of waves of population flowed over this northern 
land. The mountain ranges are parallel to the sea coast, and by a 
long valley which runs up through Paphlagonia to the I Talys have 
passed through all ages the armies which have made or marred 
the fate of Asiatic empires. We must think of these waves as 
following one another, each helping to propel still farther east- 
wards the wave that preceded it. Oneoftheearhest, though probably 
not the first, of these waves has only lately become known to us, 
1 Strabo, xn, 566, 542. » Herod r» 171. 


In 1907 were first published from the German discoveries at 
Boghaz Keui the names of the Indian deities Mitra, Varuna, 
Indsa and the heavenly twins, the Nasatyas. The records belong 
to about the beginning of the fourteenth century b.c, and, in spite 
of the difficulties of the cuneiform syllabary, there could be no 
doubt that here were names well known in Indian mythology, 
though at a distance of some two thousand five hundred miles 
from the nearest point of India. Since then numerals and other 
words have bee*a discovered of the same origin. It is noticeable 
that the words are not, as might be expected, in the Iranian forms, 
which in later times are distinguished from the Indian forms by 
well-marked phonetic differences 1 . There is no probability that 
we have at this early date the records of Indian princes carrying 
their conquests so far afield. The only feasible conclusion is that 
here we have, in the fourteenth century B.C., the records of the 
Aryan people not yet differentiated into Iranians and Indians, who 
at a later period formed these two important Indo-European stocks. 
Much is still uncertain with regard to many of the records dis- 
covered at Boghaz Keui, but this at all events is beyond dispute, 
that, amongst the peoples who for a time centred around this 
ancient Hittite capital, were some speaking languages containing a 
strong Indo-European element in their vocabulary, the surest proof 
that Indo-European and other peoples had been in close contact. 
The course of their wanderings we do not know as yet, but close 
upon them must have followed the people now known to us as the 
Armenians, who, in the time of Herodotus, as now, were seated 
upon the upper waters of the Euphrates, and were the subject 
population or an alien empire even as they are to-day, although 
the alien empire in the fifth century b.c. was that of the great 
Darius of Persia. To Herodotus the Armenians are an off-shoot 
from the Phrygians, 

There is no reason to doubt the statement of Herodotus that 
the Phrygians were an European stock which had passed into 
Asia from the Macedonian area in which they had been known 
to their neighbours as Briges 2 . In the ancient Phrygian language 
we have two series of inscriptions: the earlier dating from about 

* This fact k well illustrated by the numerals discovered ; the form fori 
is aiJba- in a compound, for 7 satta~* For these the Iranian forms are atva- in 
Old Persian, atva~ m the A vesta, but the Sanskrit is $ka~\ m Iranian hapia, 
in Sanskrit sapta, satta only in the later descendants of Sanskrit like Pali 
These Hittite forms are given hy P. Jensen in S.B. der prtussischm 
Akadcmt, 1919, pp. 367*07,$ E. Forrer, Z,D.M-G. 1922, pp. 254*57, 
Sec below, pp. 253, 259, * Herod vu y 73. 


the sixth century B.C.; the later and more numerous Jx»ing the 
tomb-inscriptions of the Roman period. From Armenia amies a 
rich literature beginning in the fifth century a. p. The language, 
long supposed to'lbe an off-shoot of Iranian, was demonstrated in 
1875 to be an independent branch of the Indo-European stock 1 . 
To one and the same section belong all the peoples of this family 
which have been already mentioned. They are distinguished from 
the stocks of the same origin in western Europe by their treatment 
of certain original guttural consonants which there languages con- 
vert into some form of sibilant, while in Europe they remain guttural 
sounds. The Phrygian invasion of Asia must have been a very 
important one, and Phrygia in the hey-day of its power occupied a 
large part of the interior of Asia Minor, including that which in his- 
torical times was ultimately occupied by Gauls and named ( ialatia. 
Of the Paphlagonians, the peoples situated to the north of 
Phrygia, we know little. Their name was familiar to the Greeks 
from Homer downwards. In the catalogue of the ships we are 
told that 'they were led by the shaggy heart of Pylaeiuencs from 
the Enetoi, whence is the race of wild mules.* They were famous 
for their horses and horse-breeding, but the most interesting 
point is the reference to the name of the Enetoi, to which the 
ancients found a counterpart in the Vcncti on the banks of the 
Po in northern Italy. By Strabo's time the Enetoi in Asia had 
entirely disappeared, though even this was disputed* and Zeno- 
dotus identified Enete, which he read m the text of 1 lomcr, with 
the town of Amisus (Samsun). Others accounted for their dis- 
appearance as due to the loss of Pylaemcncs in the Trojan war, 
which led to their migration to Thrace after the destruction of 
Troy and to their further migration to the north of Italy 2 - Among 
Athenians the Paphlagonians had an ill reputation as slaves. This 
character is probably to be interpreted as arising from the attitude 
of men who did not bow easily to the yoke- According to Strabo 
their eastern boundary was the Halys, and they appear to be 
distinct from the 'White Syrians' or Hittites who lived beyond 
it. To the west^ of them were situated tribes, the Cauconcs and 
the Mariandyni, who were soon absorbed by their neighbours* 
In the Persian army the Mariandyni were armed like the Paphla- 
gonians, as were also the ligyes (otherwise unknown here) and the 
Matieni. Though Herodotus more than once describes the Matieni 
as lying beyond the Armenians who border on Cappadocia, their 
historical existence has long been a puzzle. 

1 H. Hiibschmann, Z. f. vergL Sprachforschung^ xxiu f 5-49. 

2 Strabo, xxi, p. 543; vu, p- 318. 


Regarding the earlier history of the Matieni, however, the 
documents of Boghaz Keui apparently afford a clue. Amongst the 
eight peoples of whom the records are found in the great library 
unearthed at Boghaz Keui between 1905 and 1907, there appears 
one named Manda 1 , which is identified with the people of the 
same name who had come into notice as early as the time of 
Naram-Sin (2750—2700 B.C.); seven hundred years later as Mada; 
in the second millennium b.c. the name appears several times as 
Manda; in Assyrian inscriptions of the first millennium B.C. first 
and rarely as Amadai and Matai and then frequently as Madai. 
At the beginning of the first millennium B.C. a branch of the same 
people, as we learn from the Assyrian documents, is found settled 
near Lake Urmia. The oldest form of the name in Greek is pre- 
served in the Cyprian Madoi. In the Boghaz Keui documents we 
are told that one branch of this people had neither tilled nor 
reaped their land, but that a king of the Hatti (Hittites) had made 
of them vassals an<3. compelled them to be tillers of the soil, thus 
converting shepherds into husbandmen. From this we may con- 
clude that the Medes, as they are shown to be, must have been 
one of the earliest waves of the Indo-European speaking peoples 
or Wiros who crossed into Asia (see pp. 23, 2 8). The fact that they 
came into Mesopotamia from the north is no proof that they did 
not cross Asia Minor in the first instance as so many of their 
successors did. It is not improbable that this was the source from 
which the mixed languages found at Boghaz Keui obtained their 
Indo-European elements. 

The boundaries of Cappadocia seem to have varied greatly at 
different times. The wave of Phrygian invasion ? which must have 
been one of the largest, cut off Cappadocia from western Asia 
Minor; but through Cataonia and Lycaonia it was able to maintain 
its connection with Cilicia 2 . Though the most famous Hittite sites, 
Euyuk and Boghaz Keui, were within the bend of the Halys, 
Hittite remains are more numerous between the Halys and the 
Taurus. An important road led from their capital at Boghaz Keui 
to Caesarea Mazaca, whence a branch passed through Tyana and 
the Cilician Gates to Tarsus and the sea. The population of the 
mountainous part of Cilicia seems to have been originally of the 
same stock as the Hittites. In this area, about 1200 b.c, de- 
veloped the second Hittite empire with Tyana as its capital, 

1 E. Ferrer, Z.D.M.G. 1922, pp. 248 sqq. 

a The language of Lycaonia is still obscure j Calder, J.H.S* 191 1, p. 
188 sq, $ Ramsay, The Bearing of Recent Discoveries on the Trustworthiness of 
the New Testament (19 15), chap. v. 


when the ancient power at Boghaz Kcui had been overthrown 
by a confederation of tribes who carried their conquest into Syria 
and even threatened Egypt 1 . When the Hittite empire failed^ the 
Phrygian power, represented to the modern world hy the legend 
and the monument of Midas, took its plaice as the controlling 
force in the centre of Asia Minor, until in its turn it was over- 
thrown by the kings of Lydia, the last of whom, Croesus, suc- 
cumbed to the Persians under Cyrus in 546 n,t\ 

As the Hittite stock seems to represent the wntjve population 
of Asia, as distinguished from the ' Peoples of the Sea/ and other 
later incomers, it is probable that the original population of the 
mountainous districts of Isauria, Pisidia and possibly Milyas in 
Lycia (whose inhabitants were identified with the Solymi) repre- 
sent the same stock. The territory lying between the sea and 
Pisidia was, as its name Pamphylia implies, tenanted by a mixture 
of peoples who, as on all the low-lying coasts, of" Asia IVIiiior, had 
pushed their way in from outside- Unlike most areas upon the 
Asiatic coast, Pamphylia was unable to maintain Greek with any 
purity; consequently of all Greek dialects Pamphylian is the most 
modified by its surroundings* If, however, there is any truth in 
the theory that the endings in -ssos and -nda are Carianu since they 
have been found on European as well as Asiatic territory, there 
must have been a great influx of Carians into Pisidia, for of the 
thirteen towns given by Strabo as Pisidian six have the ending 
-ssos, the most important being Sagalassos and Tennesson (sec* 
also pp. 282, 556). Sinda represents the other ending, ami Adada, 
Tymbriada and Amblada may also be akin* Strabo himself 
recognizes implicitly such a possibility when he states that they 
bordered on Phrygians, Lydians and Carians, who, he quaintly 
says, are 'all peaceful peoples though exposed to the north wind,"* 
while the Romans discovered, to their cost, that the Isauriuns and 
Pisidians were much otherwise, and the PamphyHans, having a 
great share of Cilician blood amongst them, found it difficult to 
relinquish piracy 2 . Here once more appear the Leleges, •wan- 
derers,' says Strabo, 'and remaining here through similarity of 

In the Odyssey the poet has heard of a mysterious people called 
the Cimmerians, who live on the threshold of the underworld 
wrapt in mist and clouds, and the sun never looks down upon 
them with his rays either at morn or eventide, but deadly night 

1 Sayce, J.R.J.S. 1922, pp. 569^. See below, pp. 174, 283. 
% Strabo, xii, p. 570. 


is over all 1 . The people whose name was thus first made known 
to literature lived on the north side of the Black Sea in and about 
the ^Crimean peninsula. At the end of the eighth century b.c. or 
the beginning of the seventh these Cimmerians were driven from 
their ancient seats by an invasion of the Skolot-Scythians, who 
seem to have been mainly of Iranian stock. As a result, the Cim- 
merians moved first to the eastward and then found their way 
through the central pass of the Caucasus. The Scythians followed 
in their wake, but at the Caucasus they seem to have missed 
them; going farther eastwards, and passing through the Caspian 
Gates, they arrived in Azerbaijan and Media. The events that 
followed will be treated in the chapter on the Scythians in vol. in. 

It is often dangerous to rely upon similarity of name; but the 
number of identical forms in Asia Minor and in the Balkan 
peninsula is too great to be the product of mere accident, and in 
some cases, as that of the Enetoi and the Veneti, the ancients 
themselves were concerned to explain the coincidence. But besides 
that instance, and the case of the Mysians in the Troad and the 
Moesians on the Danube, there were also the Dardania in Mysia 
from which Priam drew many of his forces, and Dardania at the 
western end of Mount Haemus. The name has been related by 
some authorities to the Albanian word for farmer, dardhan, which 
is itself a derivative from dardhe y the pear tree. The tradition of 
the arrival of the Paeonians in Asia is recorded by Herodotus in 
one of his most picturesque passages and their return to Europe 
in another not less so 2 . 

The contact with Thrace had begun early, for Homer repre- 
sents Priam as the head of an alliance of tribes combined in 
defence of Troy but drawn from Europe as well as from Asia. 
The later settlement of the Thynoi and Bithynoi, whether it arose 
in connection with the Treres or not, was but the continuation of 
an older practice. These tribes were able to remain between the 
river Parthenius and the sea of Marmara because the course of 
the invasion of Asia Minor now took another turn. 

Two peoples who played a large part in Asia came in last, the 
Greeks and much later the Gauls. It is clear that the coming of 
the Greeks into Asia did not take place along the whole of the 
western coast of Asia at the same period. There is little doubt 
that the earliest stage was the migration of the Aeolians of 
northern Greece. Here legend seems to correspond well with 
what might be expected to be fact. From lolcus went forth the 
expedition of Jason, which in itself was nothing at all surprising, 
1 xi, 14. a Herod, v, 12, 163 y, 98. 

C.A*H*IJC 2 

jlo iJttii, Jf&OJr'JLES OF ASIA MINOR [chap. 

and is merely the story of early adventurers at sea, garnished with 
the myths of the Clashing Islands (Symplegades), and of the 
Golden Fleece, and the magic of Medea in Colchis. From the 
northern area also came some of the most important chiefs oF the 
two expeditions at Troy, Peleus against Laomedon^ Achilles 
against Priam. The Pagasaean Gulf is a natural sUuling-point 
for sea-rovers, and by Scyros, Imbros and Lemnos it was easy to 
descend upon the Asiatic coast. Later came the invasion of the 
lonians of Attica, and especially of the Peloponn^se, into the parts 
about Miletus and Ephesus. Much earlier than these, it may he 
conjectured, while the Arcadian stock had easy access to the sea, 
a colony set forth to Cyprus which continued;, down even to the 
fourth century bx., to write Greek in an Astatic syllabary (vol. i, 
p. 144). This island, far to the east, clearly lost touch, to a large 
extent, with the homeland of Greece and, surrounded by an 
indigenous and also a Phoenician population, preserved its 
language, as such colonies do, in a more prinfitive form than sur- 
vived in its native country. Later still came the J )orians into Crete 
and into the south-western corner of the Asiatic coast (see chap* xix). 

The most energetic of those peoples were the lonians of 
Miletus. Their colonies, established solely in the interest of their 
trade, extended on the one side into the Black Sea and on the 
other into the Delta of the Nile, Their influence spread north and 
south over their neighbours, so that Smyrna ceased to be Aeolian 
and Halicarnassus ceased to be Dorian* The Greeks have always 
been a seafaring and not an inland people, and hence it at me about 
that the area occupied by Greeks at the end of the nineteenth cen- 
tury a*d, was much the same as they were occupying in the eighth 
century b»c. 

The Gaulish tribes repeat in the full light of history what many 
other tribes must have done before history begins. Their earlier 
connections are set forth in the following chapter, They did not 
reach Asia till 278 B*e. Their opportunity arose from family 
disputes amongst the princes on the Asiatic side of the 1 lellespont 
and the Bosporus. They were in three divisions, the Tolistobogli* 
the Trocmi and the Tectosagcs 1 . The princes of Asia regarded 
their raids with awe and horror, but every one of them was pre- 
pared to employ Gaulish mercenaries as fighters against some 
town or tribe which had incurred his enmity- After wandering to 
and fro for some time as raiders, these Gauls firmly established 
themselves in part of the great area which had once been Phrygia, 
They very soon adopted the worship of the Earth goddess, the 

1 Livy, xxxvm, 16. 


most characteristic cult of Asia Minor, a fetish stone of which 
was brought from Pessinus to Rome in 204 b.c, With the cult 
they* adopted the foul rites which belonged to it, so that to later 
times the emasculated priests of the Great Mother were known 
as Gauls (Galli). 

With the kings of Pergamum the Gauls were never at peace, 
because the kings of Pergamum were not strong enough by them- 
selves to reduce them to order. In the early part of the second 
century B.C. the«Romans came into Asia and with their coming 
the doom of the Galatae was sealed. 


Abh. Abhandlungen. 

Abh. K.M. Abhandlungen fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes. 

A J.A. American Journal of Archaeology. 

A J. Ph. American Journal of Philology. 

A.J.SX. American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. 

Anc. Eg. Ancient Egypt. 

A.S.A.E. Annales du Service des antiquites de FJilgypte. 

Ath. Mitt. Mitteilungen des deutschen arch. Inst., Athenische Abteilung. 

B. z. Ass. Beitrage zur Assyriologie und semitischen Sprachwissenschaft. 

B.C.H. Bulletin de Correspondance hellenique. 

B.I.C. Bulletin de l'lnsritut francais d'archeologie orientale au Caire. 

Bay. S.B. Sitzungsberichte d. bayerischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften. 

Berl. S.B. Sitzungsberichte d. preuss. Akad. d. Wissenschaften zu Berlin. 

Biblica Biblica. Commentarii editi a Pontiiicio Instituto Biblico, Roma. 

B.S.A. Annual of the British School at Athens. 

B.S.R. Papers of the British School at Rome. 

Bull. d. I. Bullettino dell' Instituto. 

C.A.H. Cambridge Ancient History. 

C.I|G. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 

C.LL. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 

C.I.S. Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. 

CJ. m Classical Journal. 

C.Q. Classical Quarterly. 

C.R. Classical Review. 

C.R. Ac. Inscr. Comptes rendus de TAcademie des Inscriptions. 

D.B. Dictionary of the Bible (J. Hastings, Edinburgh, 1898). 

E. Bi. Encyclopaedia Biblica. 

E. Brit. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ed. XI. 

E.H.R. English Historical Review. 

E.R.E. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 

*E<£, *Ap^. 'E^jucpis *Apxouo\oyLfCi]. 

F.H.G. C. Muller, Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum. 

G.G.A. Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. 

Geogr. Z. Geographische Zeitschrift. 

Head H.N. Head, Historia Numorum, 2nd Ed. 1912. 

Herm. Hermes. 

LG.F. Indogermanische Forschungen. 

J.A.O.S. Journal of the American Oriental Society. 

J.A. Journal Asiatique. 

J.B.S.^ Journal of Biblical Studies. 

JJD.A.L Jahrbuch des deutschen archaologischen Instituts. 

J.E.A. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 

J.H.S. Journal of Hellenic Studies. 

J. Man. E.O.S. Journal of the Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society. 

J.R.A.I. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 

J.R.A.S. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 

J.R.S. Journal of Roman Studies. 



J.S.O.R. Journal of the Society of Oriental Research. 

K.A.H. Keilinschrifttexte aus Assur historischen Inhalts. 

Klio. Klio (Beitrage zur alten Geschichte). 

Liv. A A. Liverpool Annals of Archaeology. 

M.B.B.A. Monatsbericht der Berliner Akademie. 

M.D.O.G. Mitteilungen der deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft. 

M.D.P.V. Mitteilungen des dentschen Palastinavereins. 

M.V.A.G. Mitteilungen der vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft. 

Mon. d. I. Monument! Antichi dell' Institute. 

NJ. Kl. Alt. Neue Jahrbiicher fur das klassische Altertum. 

NJ.P. Neue Jahrbiicher fur Philologie. 

N.S.A. Notizie degli Scavi di Antichita (Atti d. r. Accad. dei Lincei). 

Num. Chr. Numismatic Chronicle. 

Num. Z. Numismatische Zeitschrift. 

O.L.Z. Orientalistische Literaturzeitung. 

P.E.F. Palestine Exploration Fund. 

Phil. Philologus. 

P.S.B.A. Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

P.W. Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopadie der klassischen Alterturnswis- 


lip. IIpaKTt/ca. 

£XS. Quarterly Statement(s). ^ 

Rec. Trav. Recueil de Travaux relatifs a la philologie et a l'archiologie £gyp- 

tienne et assyrienne. 

Rev. A. Revue arch£ologique. 

Rev. Ass. Revue d'Assyriologie. 

Rev. Bib. Revue biblique Internationale. 

Rev. Eg. Revue egyptologique. 

Rev. E.G. Revue des emdes grecques. 

Rev. H. Revue historique. 

Rev. N. Revue numismatique. 

Rh. Mus. Rheinisches Museum fiir Philologie. 

Riv. Fil. Rivista di Filologia. 

Riv. N.O. Rivista nuova orientale. 

Rom. Mitth. Mitteilungen des deutschen arch. Inst., Romische Abteilung. 

R.V. Revised Version. 

R.V. mg. Revised Version margin. 

S.B. Sitzungsberichte. 

Syria. Syria: Revue d'art oriental et d'archeologie. 

T.S.B.A. Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

Wien S.B. Sitzungsberichte d. Akad. d. Wissenschaften in Wien. 

Wien St. Wiener Studien. 

W.Z.K.M. Wiener Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes. 

Z.A. Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. 

Z. Aeg. Zeitschrift fur aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. 

Z.A.T.W. Zeitschrift fiir die alttestamentliche Wlssenschaft. 

Z.D.M.Go Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 

Z.D.P.V. Zeitschrift des deutschen Palastina-Vereins. 

Z.E. Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic. 

Z.G. £ E. Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde* 

Z„N. ' Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik. 


These bibliographies do not aim at completeness. They include modern and 
standard works, and, in particular, books utilized in the writing of the chapters. Many 
technical monographs, especially in journals, are omitted, but the works that are 
registered below will put the reader on their track. 

Special works dealing with the history posterior to the period with which this 
volume deals (viz. 1 580 to c. 1000 b.c.) are naturally held over for the later volumes. 

For some general information on the bibliographical, cartographical and other 
literature, see vol. 1, p. 630. 

N.B. Books in English and French are, unless otherwise specified, published at 
London and at Paris respectively, 



General History 

Cavaignac, E. Histoire de lAntiquite. I, 11 (pp. 239-5;). 1919. 

Hall, H. R. The Ancient History of the Near East. 5th ed. 1920. 

Helmholt's World History* Vok iv. The Mediterranean Nations. 

Maspero, Sir Gaston. Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'Orient. 6th ed. 1904. 

The Struggle of the Nations. 2nd ed. 19x0. 

Meyer, E. Geschichte des Altertums. I, 11. 4th ed. Berlin, 1921, (Especially 
PP- 68 7~J58.) 

- Geography and Archaeology 

Hamilton, W. J. Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus and Armenia. 2 vols. 1842. 

Hogarth, D„ G. Ionia and the East. Oxford, 1909. 

Perrot, G. and C. Chipiez. Histoire de l'art dans rantiquiti, tome iv, Livre vi, Les 
Helens (1887); tome v, Livre vii, La Phrygie, La Mysie, La Bithynie et La 
Paphlagonie; Livre viii, La Lydie et La Carie; Livre ix, La Lycie (1890). 

Ramsay, Sir W.M. Historical Geography of Asia Minor. 1890. See also bibliography 
of Ramsay's publications in Anatolian Studies presented to Sir W. M. Ramsay, 
edited by W. H. Buckler and W. M. Calder, 1923, pp. xiii-xxxviii. 

Reclus, El. Nouvelle G^ographie universale, tome ix (Asie anterieure). 1884. 
English translation by E. Ravenstein. 

Texier, C* Description de PAsie Mineure. 3 vols. 1839-49. 

Weber, O. Die Kunst der Hethiter. Orbis Pictus. Band 9. n. d. 

Wilson, Sir C. Murray's Handbook of Asia Minor. 2nd ed. (Out of print.) 


Former, E. Die Inschriften und Sprachen des Hatti-Reiches. Z.D.M.G. lxxvi, 

pp. 174-269. 
Kretschmer, P. Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, Gottingert, 

(See also Hrozn^, below, p. 660.) 

1 Some works are mentioned which have appeared since the chapter was printed. See, 
in general, the articles under names of peoples and countries in D.B., E. BL, E. Brit., 
P.W., and O. Schrader's Reallexikon der indogermanischen Altertumskunde, 2nd ed., 
Berlin, 19 17- • Cf. also the list, vol. I, pp, 619-24, 



Luschan, F. von. The early inhabitants of Asia. Huxley Lecture. J.A.I. xli, 191 i. 

Partly contained in his Wandervolker Kleinasiens. Z.E. xvm. (1900.) 
Ungnad, A. Die altesten Volkerwanderungen Vorderasiens. Breslau, 1923. 
Winckler, H. Die Volker Vorderasiens. Der alte Orient. 2nd ed. 1903. 
Zaborowski, S. Les peuples aryens d'Asie et d'Europe. 1908. 

For the Inscriptions of Lemnos in an unknown language see p. 650. 

Regions of Asia Minor 
(Arranged according to the order in which they are treated.) 

[Seethe bibliography to chap, xi, below, p. 659^.] 

Peoples of the Sea 
[See the bibliography to chap, xn, below, pp. 661 sqql\ 


Arkwright, W. G. Lycian and Phrygian names. J.H.S. xxxvin (191 8), pp. 45—73. 
Benndorf, O. and G. Niemann. Reisen in Lykien und Karien. Vienna, 1884. 
Kalinka, E. Tituli Asiae Minoris I. Vienna, 190 1. (Lycian only.) 
Kluge, Theod. Die Lykier: ihre Geschichte und ihre Inschriften. Der alte Orient. 

Petersen, E. and F. von Luschan. Reisen in Lykien, Milyas und Kibyra*ds. Vienna, 

Spratt, T. A. B. and E. Forbes. Travels in Lycia, Milyas and the Cibyratis. 2 vols. 

Sundwall, J. Die einheimischen Namen der Lykier nebst einem Verzeichnisse 
kleinasiatischer Namenstarnme. Klio, 11 Beiheft, 191 3. Cf. O. A. Danielsson: 
G.G.A. 19 1 6, pp. 490-532. (See also under Etruscan.) 

Thomsen, V. Etudes lyciennes (extrait du Bulletin de TAc. Roy.). Copenhagen, 

Treuber, O. Geschichte der Lykier. Tubingen, 1887. 


Beloch, J. Griechische Geschichte I (2nd ed.), 1, p. 97. 

Meyer, Georg. Die Karier. Bezzenberger's Beitrage zur Kunde der indogerman- 

ischen Sprachen, x (1886), 147-202. (Now valuable only as a collection of 

Sayce, A. H. The Carian Language and Inscriptions. T.S.B.A. ix, 1885, pp. t^z- 

54. Cf. P.S.B.A. 1895, pp. 39-43 and note, p. 207. 
Sundwall, J. Zu den karischen Inschriften und den darin vorkommenden Namen. 

Klio, xi, 464-80. 


Aly, W. Karer und Leleger. Phil, lxviii (1909), 428 sqq. 
Deimling, K. W. Die Leleger. Leipzig, 1862. (Obsolete.) 
Thraemer, E. Pergamos. Leipzig, 1888. 



Littmann, E. Lydian Inscriptions, Part 1, being volume vi of Sardis publications of 
the American Society for the excavation of Sardis. Leyden, 1916. Cf. S. A. 
Cook, J.H.S. xxxvn, 77-86, 219-31; O. A. Danielsson, Zu den lydischen 
Inschriften, 191 8 (Skrifier utgifna af K. H. Vetenskaps-Samfundet i Uppsala); 
J. Fraser, The Lydian Language (Anatolian Studies, presented to Sir W. M. 
Ramsay, 1923, pp. 139-50). 

Radet, E. La Lydie et le monde grec au temps des Mermnades (687-546 B.C.). 1 893. 
For the Maeonian name see K. Meister, Die homerische Kunstsprache, 192 1 

(Preisschrift d. Jablonowskischen Gesellschaft), p. 1 5 1 sq. 


Brandenburg, E. Phrygien und seine Stellung im kleinasiatischen Kulturkreis. Der 
alte Orient. 1907. 

Calder, W. M. Corpus Inscriptionum Neo-Phrygiarum. J.H.S. xxxi, 161— 215; 
xxxiii, 97—104. 

Fraser, J. Phrygian Studies I (Language). Transactions of the Cambridge Philo- 
logical Society, vi, Part ii. 191 3. 

Korte, G. and A. Gordion. Arch. Jahrb., Erganz.heft. v, 1904 

Phythian- Adams, W. J. Hittjje and Trojan Allies- 1922. (British School of 
Archaeology at Jerusalem, Bulletin No. 1 .) 

Ramsay, Sir W. M. On the early historical relations between Phrygia and Cappa- 
docia. J.R.A.S. 1883, pp. 100-35 (with reduced facsimiles of the Old 
Phrygian Inscriptions), Bezzenberger's Beitrage, xiv, pp. 308--12. 

Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia. 2 parts. 1895, 1897. 

Mysia and the Troad, Bithynia 
[See bibliography of Troy (p. 677) and Thrace (p. 651).] 

Leonhard, W. Hittiter und Amazonen. Leipzig, 1911. (Fanciful.) 

[See bibliography in vol. 1, p. 648, and below, p. 659, n. x.] 

Chantre, E. Recherches archeologiques dans FAsie occidentale. Mission en Cappa- 

doce, 1893-4. 1898. 
Grothe, H. Meine Vorderasien Expedition, 1906-7. 2 vols. Leipzig, 191 1— 12. 

The location of many of the new peoples and places mentioned in the Boghaz- 
Keui Inscriptions is still vague; compare the map accompanying E. Forrer, M.D.O.G. 
No. 63 (March), 1924, with that in A. Gotze, Kleinasien zur Hethiterzeit (Heidel- 
biSrg, 1924), or Mayer and Garstang, Liv. A.A. x (see p. 660 below). 


Hommel, F. Grundriss der Geographic und Geschichte des alten Orients.* 2nd ed. 

Munich, 1904. 
Hubschmann, H. Indogermanische Forschungen, xvi, 204^7. (Incoming of 

Armenians into the Van country.) 
Lynch, H. F. B. Armenia. 2 vols. 190T (vol. 11, chap. iv). 



Some part of Cilicia was apparently occupied by Arzawa, to which two letters in 
the Tell el-Amarna Collection were addressed. These were edited in 1902 by 
J. A. Knudtzon, who declared their language Indo-European. It is now identified 
with the official language of the Boghaz-Keui Inscriptions. 
Heberdey, R. and A. Wilhelm. Reisen in Kilikien ausgefiihrt 1891 u, 1892. Denk- 

schriften d. kais. Akad. d. Wissens. Vienna, 1896. 
Ramsay, Sir W. M. Cilicia, Tarsus, and the Great Taurus Pass. Geog. Journal, 
I9°3>PP- 3 57-4-I3- 

For the Cilician Empire with its capital at Tyana and extending to Carchemish on 
the east, Gurun and Cappadocia on the north, Hamath on the south and Lydia on 
the west, see A. H. Sayce, P.S.B.A. 19 14, pp. 233 sqq, 

Pisidia and Pamphylia 

Lanckoronski, Niemann and Petersen. Stadte Pamphyliens u. Pisidiens. 2 vols, 
Vienna, 1890, 1892. 
The dialect of the Greek Inscriptions, which is archaic as well as much modified, 
is related by F. Bechtel (Die griechischen Dialekte, 11, 797 [1923]) to the dialect 
of Crete.